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Wednesday, December 7, 2016

Eternalism: The Philosophy of Time

Time is a dimension that when viewed from an omnipotent point of view is a single portrait. Essentially all of time is happening all the time. There is no difference between the future and the past. Things are and always will be and there is nothing that can change them. Things happen because they were always happening. An omnipotent creature views time outside of our modern -understand of physics and mathematics which tells us that our physical universe is a three-parameter model. The three-parameter model represent the three dimensions in which all of matter exists. The three dimensions; width, height and depth, can be exemplified in a geometric figure such as a cylinder. The way in which we perceive and intake experience the physical world is understood by the foundations of physics, geometry and mathematics. Which fundamentally proves the theory of time itself. As natural law and scientific theory are based on a series of irrefutable facts, the eternal flow of the timeline in which events happen in mathematical sequence is nothing more than a mathematical equation that takes us to our present moment. Just as elements on the periodic chart serve as mathematical equations in which various elements come together to form new elements. The new element is always the algorithm of old two elements and no other equation could end up with that result. Mathematically speaking all human interactions across the globe are feeding into the equation which forms our present moment, our immediate reality serving as the byproduct of prior events. With that knowledge, we must surmise that our immediate reality is fundamentally in link with every event in human history and would not be occurring as it is now if it were not for prior events. Thus, every action you make has already been determined because history is an equation that produces the present moment and it could not have happened any other way. Everything that has happened in the life of the individual thus far is the equation like two hydrogens and one oxygen and what you’re doing right now is the H2O. Thus, history is a mathematical equation. Our present reality is a complex algorithm. The timeline is a constant that has been and always will be. Everything that will happen has already happened. Humans didn’t need to discovery physics. Physics existed whether or not humans are aware of it. Evolution exists whether humans are aware of it or not. The natural laws of the universal are not man-made, they are constants that continue whether sentient beings observe their processes or not. As the natural laws are and have always been, there is no different way in which hydrogen can be explained, just as oxygen has a determined factual basis. This deterministic view, when applied to time, presents a philosophical position in which for every event there exist conditions that could cause no other event. Although such notions of pre-determined fates are weary on the hope for a physical world in which free will eliminates determinism, determinism can be presented through empirical testing. The paradigm of time in regards to history is that history falls into accordance with the same natural state of laws subjected to any scientific field of discovery. History and time as it relates to the paradigm follow a casual determinism. In the scientific field of physics a casual determinism would be in likeness to the system of cause and effects. As physicists work within the realm of causes and effects, historians must also view their study as a series of causes and effects. As the historian studies his field as a social scientist he can only surmise that any state is completely determined by prior states. Determinism serves as a perfect prediction of what will happen. Through studies of the past, the future [since it is pre-determined] becomes predictable. Economic downturns are predictable. Sectarian violence is predictable. Just as eclipses are predictable. Rainbows are predictable. Thunder storms are predictable. The scientist can make predictions just as the historian can make predictions. The entire universe is a single determinate system in the likeness of a computer coding system which to the untrained eye would be perceived as nothing but a repeating series of ones and zeroes. Considering all human action in every moment of the timeline each indiscriminate action adds a series of ones and zeroes to the coding, bestowing us with our present reality. 

Monday, December 5, 2016

Andrew Jackson: The Last American Lion

Robert Gold
History 11
Professor Mooslin

The Champion of Universal White Male Suffrage

            Andrew Jackson was truly the Donald Trump of the 19th century. Jacksonian Democracy was anti-big government in its war against the Centralized Banking System, extremely nationalistic in its crusade towards Manifest Destiny and the strongest Jackson and Trump correlation comes from their shared championing of the white working class.
            First, let us address Universal White Male Suffrage as one of the fundamental tenants of Jacksonian Democracy. But first, let us define Universal White Male Suffrage. Universal White Male Suffrage was the belief that voting rights should be extended to all white men. By the end of the 1820s attitudes nationwide towards universal white male suffrage had turned favorable. Throughout the period of Jacksonian Democratic Presidents such as Franklin Pierce, James Buchanan and James K. Polk, a period which lasted from 1828 – 1856, the historically disenfranchised white working class were finally awarded a voice in the Republic as virtually all laws regarded land owning as a prerequisite for voting were eliminated.
            As the Jacksonian era came to a close in 1856, universal white male suffrage had been achieved. Nearly all requirements to town property and nearly all requirements to pay taxes, as a prerequisite to vote, had been abolished. How did this magnificent achievement in human rights come about? Nearly every President between 1828-1856 had either been a Jackson admirer or a literal member of Jackson’s White House Cabinet during his time in office. Franklin Pierce was elected Speaker of the House in 1831, a time when Democrats controlled the executive and legislative branch. Andrew Johnson was an old-fashioned Southern Jacksonian Democrat of renounced states’ rights views. James Buchanan had served as the Minister to Russia during the Jackson Administration.
            James K. Polk campaigned for Jackson for the Senate in Tennessee and for the Presidency in 1824, 1828 and 1832. James K. Polk was elected Speaker of the House to lead a Democratically Controlled Congress, championing Jacksonian ideals, as Jackson served as commander-in-chief. Franklin Pierce campaigned vigorous for Jackson across New Hampshire during the 1828 election cycle. James K. Polk was considered the last of the Jacksonian Democrats to serve in the White House, although Andrew Johnson was a great admirer of Jackson and his championing of the white working class. It is to be noted that Johnson himself was a white working class man who made his living as a tailor in his early years and although he was a man of the South, he was never wealthy enough to have slaves of his own, and thus he spent his life feeling rejected the southern socialite plutocratic society and the ideals of a man like Jackson, who spoke to the common men like Johnson, that was quite appealing.
            As Universal White Male Suffrage became a dream finally realized by 1856, the shift towards Women’s Suffrage and Black Suffrage quickly came to the forefront of American politics. In 1870, African American males were given voting rights by way of the way of the 15th Amendment. In 1869, Wyoming became first state to give women the right to vote. This is not very well-known but the Women’s Rights Association led by Susan B. Anthony fought the Suffragette movement on a state by state basis, similarly to how the same-sex marriage battle has been fought. In Montana, it was 1883. In Utah, it was 1870. In 1883 it was Washington. In 1893 we had Colorado. In Idaho, it was 1896.
            Now objectively in truth be told we as historians, regardless of our personal grievances towards Jackson, must recognize that if the Universal White Male Suffrage movement had never fully metastasized it is unlikely that women or black would have ever gotten the right to vote.
This is not to say that “white males” are trail blazers, this is more to say that the elimination of property and tax requirements was truly a victory for anyone in this country who considered the expansion of Athenian democracy and a descendant of plutocratic republicanism a good thing.
            But what other rights of the white working class besides voting did Andrew Jackson stand up for. The primary component of his Administration that aided white working class men was his push towards Manifest Destiny. Now many Republicans opposed Manifest Destiny as imperialistic and a form of tribalistic Americanism. On top of that they opposed anti-immigration policies, while the Jacksonian Democrats were “nativists” believing that American domestic policies should serve those already living here, another remnant of Trumpist philosophy finding its voice on the Jacksonian platform.
            As a part of Jacksonian Manifest Destiny, many Democratic Presidents who succeeded Jackson continued his policies of territorial expansion. This followed the Jacksonian belief that white working class Americans should settle the American West, so that America would one day expand her control to both the Atlantic and Pacific Ocean. Under Jacksonian Presidents, this goal of expanding across North American continent from coast to coast was fully realized after The Mexican-American War. Senator Abraham Lincoln vigorously criticized President James K. Polk and the democrats for purposefully provoking a war with a neighboring state, seizing more than held that state’s territory, and spilling American blood for their selfish territorial ambitions.
            Thirdly I’d like to address Jackson’s position on the banks. Donald Trump painted his political opponent as the corporate candidate raking in millions of dollars to do speeches for Goldman Sachs. Now although Jackson and Trump are wealthy men, they became warriors of the White working class, taking on the plutocrats seeking to dominate the bureaucracy.
The Jacksonian Democrats viewed the Bank of the United States as an illegitimate government run corporation in violation of state sovereignty.
            The Bank posed a threat to the agriculture based economy of the South, placing more power in the hands of Industry and in the hands of the Coastal Elites. Jacksonians viewed the bank of the United States as a pandering of economic privileges to financial elites. Such notions outraged the white working class, who saw such policies as a violation of their constitutional rights. It is important to note that the idea of a Nationalized Banking System was a debate topic that had been going since the days of Jefferson and Hamilton.
            The Hamiltonians favored more Centralized federal and executive power, and thus supported the implementation of a nationalized bank. The Jeffersonians, on the other hand, favored states’ rights and individual sovereignty, and thus opposed the erections of a nationalized bank. The Anti-Federalists and Federalists are just names for Republicans and Democrats. Although back then it was the Republicans like Abraham Lincoln who wanted more big government and as a Senator and President he supported government construction projects, government industrialization of the nation and even government built highways, railroads and streets. Jackson, in an effort to destroy the Bank of the United States, quickly removed the bank’s federal deposits spits to several dozen private banks throughout the country. This episode of the bank’s decline and fall officially ended in 1841 with the liquidation of the institution its entirety. Jackson, the champion against Corporate America had triumphed.

            In conclusion, Andrew Jackson should take credit for the voting rights of women and black because they trail blazed with Universal White Male Suffrage. Jacksonian Democrats are responsible for fighting for taking down Big Government and destroying and Bank of the United States, although the Federal Reserve established in 1913 under Woodrow Wilson is in likeness to it. Lastly and most importantly, the ideals of Manifest Destiny brought America to territorially dominance over this continent we live on. Without the Jacksonian Democrats, we’d still be a measly 13 colonies. But today we are 50 states, in large part do to the great Andrew Jackson.